July 9, 2015


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Reigate Grammar School, UK. Local weather station and forecasts for education. Reporting on local and global weather and climate. RMetS education committee. Town VP2 updates website every 10mins, wind every 5secs. CoCoRaHS manual rain gauge. Data to Met Office + Weather Underground.  Status: Reigate data uploads all good! :-)

badge_2015Delighted to announce that Reigate Grammar School has won a new MetOffice and Royal Meteorology Society MetMark Award 2015 for excellence in weather teaching and promotion of weather understanding and climate awareness in schools. Read some of our best weather club events that helped win the award: HAB launch; BBC school report; River Mole and Gatwick flood reports and St Jude storm post as reported on Radio4 and published student authors in Weather magazine.


September 2015 Reigate weather summary

Reigate September summary weather statistics

Tmax 22.4C

Tmin 3.9C

Average temperature 13.3C

Total rain 79.8mm (CoCoRaHs)

Max gust 25mph (14 Sept)

Mean SLP 1016mb

Sunshine 132.9 hours

September in Reigate turned out to be cooler than average with rainfall amounting to around average totals mostly falling in showers so that there were relatively long dry sunny spells, especially towards the start of the month, with HIGH pressure in charge or nearby for much of the time.

It was sunnier than usual for September at over 130 hours. This was good news for Run Reigate which turned out to be a beautiful day for the runners.

Much of the September rainfall fell in heavy showers, especially in some storms mid-month.  This meant 2015 September rainfall at nearly 79.8mm turned out wetter than 2014, at a mere 22mm.  Despite this it was still just about equal to the long-term average rainfall according to MetOffice anomaly charts.

At a mean temperature of 13.4C September was slightly cooler than average and the CET came out at 1C below the long term average. Globally, September was 0.31C warmer than the long term average.

Originally posted on xmetman:

Killerton - 0822 on the 18th of December 2010 Killerton – 0822 on the 18th of December 2010

I was looking at the way this month was faring up as far as circulation patterns were concerned using the objective Lamb Weather Type data. September had ended strongly anticyclonic and that’s how October [2015] started. It wasn’t long though before the whole thing had unravelled and a low pressure system zipped across the country, but looking at the latest NWP data I notice that , according to the GFS model at any rate, high pressure would build and the next week looks like being anticyclonic easterly [AE] and very similar to the 27 – 30th of last month. So I decided to look for the most anticyclonic October from the 1871 data set and to my surprise found that 1879 turned up at the top of the list.

Lamb Weather Type Analysis for the October [01 Oct - 31 Oct] Lamb Weather Type Analysis for the October [01 Oct – 31 Oct]…

View original 348 more words


Hurricane Joaquin tracks NE then E across Atlantic

Hurricane Joaquin, previously a Category 4 hurricane, tracked across Bermuda today and dropped to Cat 1.  Nevertheless, maximum sustained winds were near 85 mph with higher gusts. Joaquin is expected to transition to a large extra-tropical low pressure system on Wednesday. The chart below shows how many extra-tropical storms (those named previously as tropical cyclones) reach or have got near to the UK, many of these would have passed unnoticed as regular autumnal stormy weather.


extra-tropical storms that have reached or nearly reached the UK

The tracks below show the remnants of Joaquin apparently taking direct aim at the UK but it’s not unusual to have extra-tropical storms arriving in UK waters during the autumn.  Of course, extra-tropical storms lose much of their tropical characteristics and potency as they recurve and track across the cooler mid-latitude Atlantic.  Even if extra-tropical storms track directly across the UK they are usually not much more than a nuisance storm, like Bertha in August 2014.

Beyond Friday, model tracks are more uncertain on whether the remnants of Joaquin will actually impact the UK at all, or linger offshore.  A ridge of high pressure builds later this week and acts as an effective buffer to block off Atlantic LOWS, including Joaquin.  He is therefore reduced to sitting offshore.


HIGH pressure ridge blocks entry to Joaquin

Of the main models the ECM sees ex-Joaquin taking a more direct track across the country later in the weekend.  The GFS is keen to disrupt the trough and send a secondary LOW across the south of the UK later in the weekend while the main system seems to merge with a trough to the NW.  The UKMET sticks the LOW offshore for longer and sweeps the system to the NW of the UK with any wind impact mostly limited to the far west. This disagreement between models shows uncertainty so … keep watching forecasts if weekend weather (especially later) is important.


Ex-Joaquin location by Saturday Oct 10

Prior to this the pressure across the country is set to build after an unsettled start to the week.  The charts below show a purposeful rise in pressure to the end of the week, with the Joaquin uncertainty kicking in thereafter, although Saturday looks good on most charts at present.

The Atlantic satellite view shows the impressive swirl of Hurricane Joaquin tracking near Bermuda today and the UK top right.



run reigate weekend wins out for a great day

The second annual Run Reigate half marathon and 10km race on Sunday is a major event for the town.  Happily the weather looks PERFECT for both runners and spectators!

A ridge of HIGH pressure is building in as the trough which brought a few sharp showers this afternoon moves off NE. So we expect no rain at all this weekend.

A beautifully settled early autumn weekend is expected.  Cool nights at Tmin 10C with some autumnal mist early morning are likely.  Days will brighten up in sunshine to reach possibly Tmax 20C in the afternoon.

Light winds and little cloud will be appreciated by runners and spectators. The outlook is for unsettled cooler than average conditions to gradually return on Monday and into next week with rain at times as Atlantic fronts progress across the country with low pressure. Further ahead there is a chance of a warmer and drier end to September as a Scandinavian high builds to the east.


outlook shows a fortunately settled weekend for Run Reigate


Atlantic chart NOAA Sat 12/09/2015

The chart above shows an active situation developing in the Atlantic with LOWS offshore ready to bring some unsettled weather to the UK this week.  Reigate has enjoyed a splendidly bright and sunny Saturday but notable rainfall totals could add up this week.  A series of LOW pressure systems, arriving from the SW will force meetings between cool polar and warm tropical airmasses.  These systems are likely to bring wet and windy weather at times, especially Monday and possibly even more mid-week.  In between, brighter weather is also possible, especially Tuesday.  Before then, Sunday sees the chance of some heavy rain clipping into our region from the south east.. potentially heavy if it spills over from Kent. (stayed SE)

(scroll down if you just want to see RunReigate outlook!) :-)

rainfall totals ensemble comparisons

The general theme this coming week is for an increasingly perky autumnal jetstream to deepen Atlantic LOWS and bring them up to the UK from the SW with attendant rain and wind at times.

In Reigate, according to our longer term average climatology, we get our heaviest rainfall when winds arrive from a southerly direction, which will be the case periodically through this week as LOWS track to our NW.  The chart below shows how southerly winds will effect Reigate on Monday and Wednesday, and the rainfall chart for Wednesday shows potentially heavy rain that might be expected then.

The first LOW modelled to track SW to NE arrives Sunday night and into Monday.  Fronts attached to this LOW will bring wet weather into the SE and especially across the coast and Channel during Monday, some of this could be heavy and thundery in nature with cold upper air temperatures steepening lapse rates.  Windy weather, especially nearer the coast, is likely too with tightly packed isobars.  During Monday into early Tuesday SW convective wind gusts of 30-40mph are possible inland across the SE and 50mph+ in the Channel at times.


September LOW England

By mid-week a more intense depression could quickly follow bringing more interesting unsettled weather to the UK.  On the charts below the LOW off Nova Scotia is the remnants of a now dissipated ex-tropical depression called Henri.  This system is not much to speak of at the moment, however, some models bring the remnant energy of Henri into Biscay by mid-week where it is forecast to merge and deepen with an Atlantic LOW under the jetstream and approach the UK from the SW possibly bringing an early taste of autumnal stormy weather through the UK.  This is only one outcome, so worth watching.

Extra-tropical storms inject tropical moisture and heat and energy into the Atlantic and are common in Autumn (Humberto, Cristobal in recent years).  These decaying tropical systems can decay and die mid-ocean without ceremony but sometimes they meet the jetstream, mix with polar air at the polar front and then, under certain conditions, they can intensify into significant mid-latitude depressions, enhanced with extra-tropical zest!  In contrast, sometimes these characters build HIGH pressure by pumping up ridges of high pressure with warm air if they track to the NW of the UK (like Humberto Sept 2015).  However, several models show ex-Henri riding a perky jetstream across the Atlantic this week, merging with an Atlantic low and intensifying in Biscay before pouncing directly into the UK from the SW mid-week. Southerly gales in the Channel and wet weather across in the SE are possible in this scenario but the exact track will make a big difference as to what we end up getting.  Watch forecasts for this one, as Reigate is in a moist southerly flow on most models.


Wednesday-Thursday LOW for the UK

Further ahead, Run Reigate on Sunday 20 September is a major event for the town: a half marathon and 10km attended by thousands. The weather outlook for this event currently looks favourable, although it is too far off to be certain.  After a fairly dire week of weather coming up, most models favour the idea of pressure rising into the weekend of 19-20 September, at least in the south of England.  This would be good news for Run Reigate.


pressure rising for Run Reigate event 2015

Cluster models also show more members putting the SE in reasonable conditions with a HIGH forecast on many runs building from the south or SW, however, you can spot that other clusters show short wave troughs in the broadly zonal flow that returns quite quickly with fronts (probably quite weak) potentially nudging into the SE as pressure potentially falls away somewhat through the weekend.  Anyhow, this a long way off so not confident with any forecast.


Ensemble charts shown above and below give optimism that the unsettled weather arriving this week will broadly improve for the Run Reigate event. However, tropical elements roaming the Atlantic often cause problems for weather models and so we will have to wait until nearer the time for more certainty.

The 500mb pressure anomaly chart below from the ECMWF (below left) also shows a nice High pressure building up from Europe into Southern England in the 7-10 day mean outlook, starting on 19 Sept. The GFS is less convinced about building such a significant high pressure. Let’s hope the ECM performs better this week.  Time will tell so watch this space and twitter for updates.  http://www.jellyfish.co.uk/runreigate/


mean 500mb flow for 7-10 days: hope for Run Reigate


Reigate August 2015

August Reigate Summary Statistics

  • Average temp 16.7C
  • Tmax 29.5C
  • Tmin 7.1C
  • Total rainfall 99mm
  • Sunshine 116.4 hours
  • Average pressure 1014mb
  • Max gust 29mph
  • average wind 16mph
  • dominant wind direction SOUTH

August in Reigate, like the rest of Southern and SE England, came out slightly cooler than average at nearly 17C with about twice as much rainfall than the long term average with a rainfall total of 100mm.  (Possibly* half of this fell in one deluge on 24 August when the town centre flooded quite notably from intense rain falling in a few hours (see post below)).


South East England rainfall August 2015: 177% of long term average

Across SE England the MetOffice official records showed the rainfall total of 103mm was 177% of the August 1961-1990 long term average, so nearly double the usual total in some locations, especially near the south coast (100% being the average monthly total for August in this case). Don’t forget that August is often a wet month and that August 2014 had 84mm.  Nevertheless, if you think our Summers are getting cooler and wetter then, yes, you could well be right!  Read on to find out more.

The mean 500mb pressure pattern for August above shows a deep trough in the Atlantic, dug unusually far to the south for the time of year, and a continuation of the dominant high pressure over Europe from July, nudged further east maintaining the heat wave in Europe, especially Central Eastern Europe.  This looks like it should have promised a hot August for SE England with an average upper flow from the south and a surface mean flow from the SE. Unfortunately this pattern did not deliver any heat of note, but it did deliver occasional heavy showers and some thunderstorms, with notably torrential rain showers delivering big precipitation totals in a matter of hours.


August 2015 heat stayed in Europe and away from UK

Despite the average southerly and SE flow bringing occasional thundery Spanish Plumes, the real heat stayed stubbornly on the continent and only fleetingly wafted temperatures exceeding 25C across the SE.  While France regularly baked in 30C+ daytime heat, Reigate and the SE could only struggle to Tmax temperatures of 25C and only once nudged 30C. Notably, the mean temperature was a tad below the 1981-2010 average but above the 1961-1990 average, showing how recent decades have been warmer.  So August was either above or below the long term average, depending on what LTA you choose. This is a small example of how weather statistics can be presented by the media to suit any argument regarding climate change.

The August monthly Central England Temperature (CET) came out at 0.1C above the long term average but this hides the cooler than average Tmax attained in a disappointing month.  This again illustrates how headline figures hide many subtle interpretations of weather statistics.  Overall, August was nearly average from the perspective of long term Central England Temperatures, with the East coming out slightly above average compared with a cooler West.  Maximum temperatures were widely lower than usual for August.

At 116.4 hours, sunshine was also only average or a tad below the 1961-1990 average.



sunshine duration August 2015

The dominant wind direction this August was from the SOUTH (i.e. a southerly wind).  The highest rainfall totals experienced in Reigate are brought, on our 4 year “long term average”, by southerly winds.  This makes sense because mean southerly winds are from warm source regions, travelling across Biscay and the Channel, and are frequently associated with humid warm sectors that precede fronts where heavy thundery showers can occur.

Our more frequent prevailing Westerly / SW winds bring our familiar frontal rain but this often peters out before reaching the South East as most rain is dumped over the western hills of the UK.  In contrast, warm southerly winds containing more water vapour arrive laden with precipitable water (PWAT) ripe for torrential convective downpours across Southern and SE England. The Downs (both the North and especially the South Downs) can also have a marked orographic effect enhancing this southerly rainfall pattern, whereas they have little impact on frontal rain from the west.  This warm humid southerly set-up was responsible for the Reigate deluge on 24 August, also known as a Spanish Plume.

Finally, research shows that UK Summers have got cooler and considerably wetter since 2000.  Cooler by just 0.4C (this despite some warm years) but total summer precipitation has increased by some 50mm over the last 15 years and the 10 year moving rainfall average is on the rise, most likely due to torrential rainfall events. This change to rainfall being delivered in torrential but sporadic events is in-line with climate change predictions.


Reigate summers have got cooler and wetter since 2000

Rainfall challenge! *Our local rainfall totals are proving mighty tricky to verify at the moment.  We use three sites for measuring rainfall locally: an automatic tipping bucket rain gauge at RGS, a manual CoCoRaHs rain gauge at the same site and a local sister site in town. Unfortunately they rarely agree and sometimes vary quite considerably. Also, the manual rain gauge is used to measure monthly totals because emptying it everyday (during the holidays for example) is not always possible. Calibration of the AWS and regular rain gauge measurements is therefore an immediate target. Meanwhile, all rainfall figures are available on request and posted in these summaries along with official MetOffice rainfall figures for the South East.





Reigate experienced an impressive deluge today when over 60mm* (tbc) of rain fell in a few hours causing flooding in parts of the town.  This was a “surface water flood” caused by drains being overwhelmed by intense heavy rainfall, rather than a river flood, our local River Mole will react more slowly to this event and is unlikely to cause any problems. (*by 4.30pm manual rain gauge 64mm; radar netweather est 50mm; total 24 hour rainfall 74mm manual rain gauge; RGS AWS 36.6mm; Reigate AWS 50.8mm)

The entrance to Morrisons car park and the lower section of Bell Street were overwhelmed with water bursting from drain covers adding to the water running down the roads.  It wasn’t just the roads that were flooded… such was the intensity of rain that Priory Park was also left with surface water pooling up several inches deep on the pitches, and even more in the sunken garden and around the cafe.

This rain event was accurately forecast by the MetOffice and MeteoGroup and several specialist severe and convective weather met agencies who all issued warnings of heavy thundery rain, some totals suggested over 60-90mm.

Two models, the MetOffice Euro4 and WRF NMM model output, turned out to be especially accurate with both putting exceptionally heavy rain precisely over our area at least 24 hours in advance and this was reported by RGSweather on twitter.  The GFS model was less convinced about such heavy rain reaching beyond the south coast but, as always, these convective summer events are especially hit and miss.  Today was a “hit” for Reigate but unfortunately would have probably caused a nuisance for businesses and commuters.


The maximum intensity of the rainfall in Reigate was measured at 145mm/hr during the storm between 2-3.00pm.  This intensity of rain is unusual in Surrey (highest rainfall intensity in recent years was 183mm/hr 20 Nov 2013) but we are told to expect more of our rain to fall in intense events like this with global warming.  The last time flooding of this scale took place in town was 24 Dec 2014 but, having seen both events, I think this time was slightly “worse”, although given summer conditions the surface water may have subsided quicker.  There are many areas for further investigation worthwhile here: how much rain, for how long and with what antecedent conditions (soil moisture / season / evaporation etc) and what duration of rainfall intensity causes flooding in Reigate?


rainfall intesity Reigate

The synoptic weather situation that caused this event was a trough over the Atlantic and a blocking HIGH over Scandinavia causing a warm unstable humid airmass to meet cooler Atlantic air along active fronts.  The resulting LOW transported a lot of moisture over the SE and caused the rain in heavy thundery downpours triggered near the fronts.  This situation is not likely to change much until later this week, so expect more rain but hopefully not as intense.

August SE Reigate flood

August SE Reigate flood

An unstable airmass with backing winds over the SE indicated by a skew t chart from the day.

Technically speaking this was part of a “trough disruption” event (see charts above) that started over the Atlantic during the weekend. A “trough disruption” is when an upper trough “breaks” and a southerly section of the trough proceeds purposefully east or NE leaving the centre of the trough behind as a semi-static feature.  The isolated part of the trough can then behave erratically. In this case an unusually active and southerly dipping jetstream for the time of year also played a part in deepening the LOW at the base of the disrupted trough.  Weather events can be “severe” and unexpected with models sometimes struggling to cope when trough disruptions occur.

The LOW pressure that brought heavy showers over the SE and Reigate formed in Biscay yesterday and travelled NE up the English Channel during the day.  SE England therefore experienced SE / easterly winds in the morning, backing northerly and finally swinging westerly during the course of the day, fairly unusual for our part of the world. The anticlockwise change of direction in wind is called “backing”.  Veering is the clockwise movement of wind over time or with height.


glowering clouds menace Reigate in the morning

Here are some more pictures from this event on my google pics page: please use them but do credit rgsweather. https://goo.gl/photos/Rz9rpsAWozVaEtvB7

by evening it wasn’t any better:


RGSweather photos featured on the BBC London news that evening (sorry, no sound)

Finally, we can expect more rain this week as the synoptic situation stays static with the Atlantic trough blocked by the high out East. This situation will keep us in a flow of humid moist air that, when it interacts with cooler Atlantic airmasses along fronts, is likely to cause rain.  Add an unusually active jetstream and we have a decent recipe for a wet week.


wet week ahead

links to other reports








the system went on to cause significant tornados in Netherlands http://www.dumpert.nl/mediabase/6677432/ac9ba4f6/poldernado_des_doods.html


Reigate July 2015 statistics

  • Average temperature 17.4C
  • Tmax 35.1C
  • Tmin 7.4C
  • Total rainfall 51mm
  • Max gust 27mph
  • Sunshine  161 hours

July 2015 in Reigate started hot, reaching 35.1C on July 1st due to a Spanish Plume.  The first day of July broke the record for the hottest July day when Heathrow spiked at 36.7C as cloud cleared around the airport allowing sunshine to heat the surface through an already very warm airmass.  This caused a heat spike at Heathrow and elsewhere that allowed the MetOffice to announce 1 July 2015 as the “hottest July day since records began and the hottest day since 2003”.  This set climate / weather data skeptics in a whirl as they spotted that the nearby Kew Gardens weather station did not correlate with the same heat spike at the same time allowing them to claim it was simply due to hotter local conditions from the local airport tarmac, a change of wind direction or even heat from a passing plane.

The photos below show the locations of the Heathrow weather station adjacent to the Northern Perimeter Road west and the Kew Gardens weather station.

In response to the doubt, Mark McCarthy, a climate scientist at the metoffice, was quoted in this article explaining that the heat spike was neither due to passing aircraft, nor a change of wind direction or any micro-climatic influence from tarmac and that the temperatures from Heathrow are representative and so the record stands.  In discussion with RGSweather on twitter, Mark also explained that the last 10 years of daily Tmax observations from Kew Gardens and Heathrow differ only by <0.03C on average.  This debate was akin to the wider global warming debate where met agencies present data that is then questioned by skeptics who present data that appears to contradict the claim. In any case, July 2015 started hot!  Unfortunately, July temperatures then promptly collapsed across the UK and the CET came out around average as westerlies returned from an anomalously cold North Atlantic.  Despite a lack-lustre July in the UK, globally, July turned out as the hottest month ever recorded.

Reigate and the SE had an average month being just nearer the European heatwave that dominated July.  Overall the monthly temperature came out a tad below the CET long term average, continuing a run of 3 cool months.  Further north and west July became a decidedly cool wash-out, especially in Scotland where snowfall occurred over some mountains.  Night time minimums were cooler than usual and some records were broken for lowest ever July night time minima.  In Reigate we recorded a Tmin of just 7.4C at the end of the month.

Here are metoffice anomaly charts showing how Reigate and the SE stayed warmer and drier than elsewhere.

SE rainfall overall came out above average mainly due to thunderstorms delivering locally heavy precipitation.  Reigate at 51mm came out nearer average because most heavy rain missed us. Although not local to our area, a thunderstorm over the Brecon Beacons in early July killed two people on top of Pen Y Fan and Cribyn.  The photo below shows this thunderstorm.

Globally, NOAA and JMA (Japanese met agency) reported that July 2015 was the hottest month ever recorded.

More from the metoffice on JUly 2015 here: http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/climate/uk/summaries/2015/july

Originally posted on xmetman:

This is the mean 1200 UTC surface temperature for the first 5 days of July 2015 and shows a cold North Atlantic and a warm central Europe (+10°C). It also shows a very cold northern Russia (-8°C), and cooler than average temperatures again are evident over the northern Sahara region (-3°C). I know the 5 day mean is a bit short to create anomaly charts but it does give the bigger immediate picture that is lost if you look at an entire month.

1200 Mean Air Temperature &amp; Anomalies 01 Jul to 05 Jul 2015 1200 Mean Air Temperature & Anomalies 01 Jul to 05 Jul 2015 (courtesy of NOAA & NCEP Reanalysis)

View original


June 2015 Reigate summary

June in Reigate, Surrey continued the Summer 2015 theme of mostly cool, dry and sunny but with an unsettled start and THREE attempts at continental heat from Spanish Plumes in one month. (please note that the chart above hugely exaggerates the rainfall.. check the rain scale in mm.  I have yet to fix down the scales month on month!). 

  • Average Temperature  15.7C
  • Tmax 30.6C (25.6)
  • Tmin 5.5C (6.2)
  • Total rainfall 15mm (30)
  • sunshine 192 hours (175)
  • max gust 28mph

(Figures in brackets are from June 2014)

The month started unsettled with a deep low pressure 976mb crossing Scotland from a very much cooler-than-usual North Atlantic bringing brisk winds for the time of year and comparatively cool temperatures.  Another Atlantic LOW crossed Scotland through the first week 991mb (see satpic).

A weak first attempt at a Spanish Plume 5-6 June developed ahead of an Atlantic cold front and gave some limited thundery activity early morning on 5 June, these cells went on to become more significant further north east over E Anglia.

Pressure rose thereafter as an anticyclone built firmly over the UK.   This HIGH eventually slipped north and a heat LOW from Iberia brought the threat of a second Spanish Plume around 12-13 June.  This misfired and caused little convective activity over Reigate at least.  This turned out to be a significant mis-fire for convective forecasters, despite some limited activity here and there the overall level of activity was low and certainly nothing occured over Reigate except very late in the day when some congestus puffed up.


Spanish Plume mis-fired 12 June 2015

High pressure built again with weak fronts skirting across the SE bringing some pleasant mid-level and upper level cloud, nice sunrise and sunsets and some good atmospheric optical phenomenon at times.

Towards the end of June a third attempt at a Spanish Plume yielded more heat and more purposeful thundery activity that eventually spilled over into decent thunderstorms into the start of July.  This was a modified Spanish Plume and more details can be found on the post written up here and here.

The end of June 2015 heat spike produced some 30C+ temperatures and in Reigate 30.6C was recorded on 30 June.  Overall the month was sunny but a shade cooler than average according to the CET central england temperature record.


The UK anomaly charts reflect the overall dry pattern with notably little rainfall for the month.  In Reigate the total rainfall measured was 15mm.

Although this June was not consistently hot tp push up the CET (central england temp), we did nevertheless have episodes of unusual heat, especially at the end of the month with the end of June / early July heat spike.  This heat wave was more severe and prolonged in Europe.  A “cause” of the Euro heat wave, with significant heat in Spain and Portugal, was an OMEGA BLOCK or “shruggie”  that built through June and lasted into early July.  This Omega Block pattern may also be linked to rapid melting of the Greenland icecap that has been recently reported as heat builds there under high surface pressure.

A weather pattern that resembles an atmospheric version of the shruggie — ¯\_(ツ)_/¯ — is directing furnace-like heat toward Spain, France and England on Wednesday, with high temperatures near 40 degrees Celsius, or 104 degrees Fahrenheit, as far north as Paris.

The heat wave is also affecting southern parts of England, with temperatures in the upper 30s Celsius, or mid-to-high 90s Fahrenheit. Those temperatures on Wednesday were the warmest recorded in the UK in at least nine years, according to the UK Met Office.

Andrew Freeman, Mashable 1 July 2015

heat wave / mini!

heat wave / mini! south east England Surrey